Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 23: Systematics and the Phylogenetic Revolution

Post Test

In a phylogeny two species more closely related to each other than to any others: (p .454)
A)are always extremely similar to each other.
B)share a common ancestor.
C)must have diverged within the last million years.
D)are distantly related to all other species in the phylogeny.
E)all of the above
A cladistic analysis generates a character matrix for five species, as given in the table below. A "1" indicates possession of the derived character state, and a "0" possession of the ancestral character state. From the table the following conclusions can be drawn: (p.456)


A)B is the outgroup and D and E are the most closely related
B)C is the outgroup and B and E are the most closely related
C)D is the outgroup and B and E are the most closely related
D)D is the outgroup and A and C are the most closely related

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A cladogram showing the relationship of taxa A, B, C, D, and E is shown above. If the taxa B, D, and E were classified together as a Class, then this would be an example of a: (p. 459)
A)a monophyletic group.
B)a paraphyletic group .
C)a polyphyletic group.
D)a homologous group.
E)a homoplastic group.
Consider again the cladogram given in the previous question. Suppose that the cladogram is of bees. Assume that the solitary state is ancestral and the social state is derived. If species B, D and E are social and A and C are solitary then what can you conclude about the immediate common ancestor of A and B? (p . 465)
A)It must have been solitary.
B)It must have been social.
C)It could have been either solitary or social.
D)It could have been either solitary or social, but is more likely to have been solitary.
E)It could have been either solitary or social, but is more likely to have been social.
Phylogenetic analysis has been applied to the evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been estimated that the HIV crossed-over to humans from monkeys before 1940. This is based on: (p. 468)
B)the assumption of the operation of a molecular clock.
C)analysis of blood samples from the 1930's.
D)medical records.
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