Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 23: Systematics and the Phylogenetic Revolution

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 23
  • Describe the science of taxonomy and its importance to classification.
  • Understand the necessity for and the technicalities of the binomial nomenclature system.
  • Describe taxonomic hierarchy, the three domain system and the six-kingdom classification system.
  • Be able to describe the biological species concept.
  • Understand the differences between traditional classification; systematics and phylogenies; cladistics and cladograms.
  • Explain the general evolution of the two prokaryotic kingdoms (archaebacteria and bacteria) as well as the four eukaryotic kingdoms (protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia).
  • Describe the endosymbiotic theory and origin of eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplast organelles.
  • Understand the importance of compartmentalization, multicellularity and sexuality in the scheme of eukaryotic specialization.
  • Explain the general characteristics of viruses and show why they are not classified into any of the established domains and/or kingdoms.
  • Understand the present day hierarchical scheme is subjective and subject to changes with ongoing evidence.
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