Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 49: The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 49
  • Compare the anatomy and efficiency of open and closed circulatory systems.
  • Understand the three primary functions of the vertebrate circulatory system.
  • Identify and describe the function(s) of each of the cellular and non-cellular components of blood.
  • Describe the anatomy of the major kinds of blood vessels.
  • Explain the relationship between blood vessel diameter and flow resistance including the effects resistance has on the efficient operation of a closed circulatory system.
  • Describe the vertebrate lymphatic system and indicate its importance.
  • Understand the evolution of the vertebrate heart from primitive fish to amphibians and reptiles through birds and mammals in terms of structure and overall circulatory efficiency.
  • Describe the structure of a human heart and the flow of blood through it.
  • Explain how the mammalian heart contracts.
  • Understand how the heart’s performance is monitored.
  • Explain how exercise affects cardiac output.
  • Describe how blood flow, pressure, and volume are regulated.
  • Describe Fick’s law of diffusion and understand how animals alter the variables to evolve more efficient respiratory systems.
  • Understand how primitive invertebrate, advanced vertebrate, and vertebrate respiratory systems each maximize the rate of diffusion.
  • Explain the countercurrent flow exchange in fish gills and indicate which parameters of Fick’s equation are optimized.
  • Describe the two major respiratory systems possessed by terrestrial animals and the evolutionary adaptations of each.
  • Compare respiration in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
  • Explain the unique respiratory system of birds, their need for a highly efficient
  • system, and the similarities with a fish respiratory system.
  • Describe the anatomy of the human respiratory system and the mechanics of breathing.
  • Understand how breathing and blood gas levels are regulated.
  • Understand the importance of gas carrier molecules in the circulatory system of vertebrates.
  • Describe how oxygen is transported from the alveoli to metabolically active tissue, how carbon dioxide returns, and how the Bohr effect augments this gaseous exchange.
  • Describe carbon dioxide and nitric oxide transport.
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