Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)
The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
Learning OutcomesChapter 49
- Compare the anatomy and efficiency of open and closed circulatory systems.
- Understand the three primary functions of the vertebrate circulatory system.
- Identify and describe the function(s) of each of the cellular and non-cellular components of blood.
- Describe the anatomy of the major kinds of blood vessels.
- Explain the relationship between blood vessel diameter and flow resistance including the effects resistance has on the efficient operation of a closed circulatory system.
- Describe the vertebrate lymphatic system and indicate its importance.
- Understand the evolution of the vertebrate heart from primitive fish to amphibians and reptiles through birds and mammals in terms of structure and overall circulatory efficiency.
- Describe the structure of a human heart and the flow of blood through it.
- Explain how the mammalian heart contracts.
- Understand how the heart’s performance is monitored.
- Explain how exercise affects cardiac output.
- Describe how blood flow, pressure, and volume are regulated.
- Describe Fick’s law of diffusion and understand how animals alter the variables to evolve more efficient respiratory systems.
- Understand how primitive invertebrate, advanced vertebrate, and vertebrate respiratory systems each maximize the rate of diffusion.
- Explain the countercurrent flow exchange in fish gills and indicate which parameters of Fick’s equation are optimized.
- Describe the two major respiratory systems possessed by terrestrial animals and the evolutionary adaptations of each.
- Compare respiration in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
- Explain the unique respiratory system of birds, their need for a highly efficient
- system, and the similarities with a fish respiratory system.
- Describe the anatomy of the human respiratory system and the mechanics of breathing.
- Understand how breathing and blood gas levels are regulated.
- Understand the importance of gas carrier molecules in the circulatory system of vertebrates.
- Describe how oxygen is transported from the alveoli to metabolically active tissue, how carbon dioxide returns, and how the Bohr effect augments this gaseous exchange.
- Describe carbon dioxide and nitric oxide transport.