Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 49: The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

Post Test

Closed circulatory systems: (p. 985)
A)are found in vertebrates.
B)contain hemolymph.
C)move fluid in a loop.
D)are not found in invertebrates.
E)both a and c
The efficient circulatory system of mammals and birds is thought to have been important in the evolution of: (p. 987)
E)none of the above
What is NOT true of the cells in the sinoatrial (SA) node? (p. 990)
A)They are the heart's pacemaker.
B)They generate spontaneous action potentials at a slower rate than other autorhythmic cells.
C)The spontaneous action potentials are due to constant leakage of Na+ ions into the cell.
D)They generate an action potential every 0.6 seconds.
What causes water to move into the capillaries from the interstitial fluid? (p. 993)
A)osmotic pressure because protein concentration is greater in the interstitial fluid
B)blood pressure
C)osmotic pressure because protein concentration is lower in the interstitial fluid
D)active transport
E)both b and c
What occurs when a baroreceptor senses an increase in blood pressure? (p. 996)
A)increased heart rate, vasoconstriction
B)increased heart rate, vasodilation
C)decreased heart rate, vasoconstriction
D)decreased heart rate, vasodilation
E)none of the above
Leukocytes: (p. 999)
A)comprise 5% of the cells in human blood.
B)are smaller than erythrocytes.
C)are not confined to the blood but can move out of the capillaries into the interstitial fluid.
D)are all classified as granular.
E)both b and c
The rate of diffusion between two regions is governed by Fick's Equation:
R = (DAΔp)/d. Which factors have been modified by natural selection to optimize diffusion rates of respiratory gases? (p. 1000)
A)D, A, Δp.
B)D, A, d.
C)A, Δp
D)A, Δp, d.
E)D, A, Δp, d.
The most important feature of fish gills that maximizes the oxygenation of the blood is: (p.1003)
A)the large surface area.
B)the movement of the fish through the water.
C)the countercurrent flow of water and blood through the gills.
D)the concurrent flow of water and blood through the gills.
Why do birds' lungs have higher respiratory efficiency than mammals'? (p. 1007)
A)They have many air sacs.
B)There is unidirectional flow of air through the system.
C)There is crosscurrent flow of air and blood.
D)They have a different type of hemoglobin.
E)both b and c
What happens when blood CO2 levels rise? (p. 1010)
A)blood pH increases
B)blood pH decreases
C)CFS pH increases
D)chemoreceptors in brain stimulate breathing to decrease
E)both b and d
The Bohr shift: (p. 1013)
A)moves the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the right.
B)facilitates oxygen unloading in the tissues.
C)results from a lowering of pH.
D)increases the efficiency of the gas exchange system.
E)all of the above
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